Japan’s defeat in the Second World War and the Allied occupation of the country created a new framework for Japanese shipping. By 1945 Japanese shipbuilding had almost ceased, due to the severity of Allied air attacks as well as shortages of workers and materials. Japan had lost eighty percent of its pre-war shipping assets; around [Continue]
Japan is a country that has a merchant marine quite similar to that of Norway, and is one of our most serious rivals in the East. We are not talking about small things. There has been proposed a ship improvement plan which aims at both newbuilding and scrapping, and with considerable state subsidy.
In the 1930s the Japanese government again intervened on behalf of the shipping sector, a strategy related to Japanese aggression in Manchuria and the move towards a war economy. A scheme that, at least in its first phase, proved successful was the adoption of the governmental Scrap and Build Scheme in 1932, followed by a [Continue]
Japanese foreign trade more than tripled during the war, from a value of 1,18 billion yen in 1914 to 3,6 billion yen in 1918, while Japan’s own tonnage increased so much that by 1920, Japan was the third biggest ship-owning country in the world.
During the First World War, Germany’s submarine warfare and subse-quently the US entry in the war led to a severe shortage of tonnage as well as an increase in freight rates. The Allied Powers requisitioned ships for war purposes, in accordance with the British-American action against neutral navigation. The war situation led to a boom [Continue]
The line had operated three Norwegian steamers. Also, Norwegian steamer had been part of the Russian fleet in the traffic between Hokkaido and Russia. This had ceased as well. In addition came growth in national shipbuilding combined with purchases of foreign steamers: ‘Japan has at present 2,011 steamers, 1,451,703 gross tons, an increase from 1,854 [Continue]
Norwegian shipping activities in Japan were affected by Japan’s policies. Norway had engaged in carrying cargo between Japan and North China, but after the Russo-Japanese war, the Japanese took over this traffic. In 1907, Peder Bemt Anker at the legation in Tokyo, reported that Norwegian freight activity had declined considerably because of competition from Japan:
Shipping was a significant part of the Meiji government’s national policy to make Japan strong and rich. Foreigners were at Japan’s doorstep, ready to intrude on coastal routes with their advanced knowledge, and possibly take them over. The authorities decided to support shipping in order to protect the nation’s interests. This required the development of [Continue]
A main charge, frequently voiced by the legation in Tokyo, was that there was a mismatch between the prominence of Norway as a shipping nation, and the way the consular service was organised. The arrival of several hundred Norwegian ships every year meant much work for the
Japanese ports were closed to foreign ships until 1854. Japanese long-distance shipping came to a halt in the early seventeenth century. In 1636 the Japanese were no longer allowed to go abroad, and Japanese merchant activities throughout South East Asia came to an end. With the exception of Holland, China, and Korea, trade with foreign [Continue]